This study approaches Buddhist medicine and surgery by comparing the medico-social events, people who were involved in it and the tools they used, from mainly three civilisations of contemporary period, the Greeks, Romans and Buddhists who prospered in Gandhara. The interactions of all three people for long periods in history are well documented, the study raises the obviously intriguing question why in some areas they influenced each other markedly but not at all in others. No doubt it is the first study on the subject and a number of aspects brought up for discussion may be new and original altogether. This study might raise few issues owing to looking at events from different perspectives because much of the history has no validity of its chronology and the mist of mythology is too thick. The narrative endeavours to engage support from reliable references and quotes from dependable sources.