Nyayaratnadipavali of Anandanubhava is an Advaita classic written in a terse style using the syllogistic propositions in analysing the viewpoints of the rival schools of philosophy and establishing the Advaita principles. The present volume contains the English translation of the first chapter of the Nyayaratnadipavali, which is accompanied by annotations based on the Vedantaviveka, an elaborate and lucid commentary written on it by the illustrious Anandajnana (Anandagiri). Some of the important philosophical issues that have been discussed in the first chapter of the Nyayaratnadipavali are as follows: The validity of Vedic testimony, the non-human origin of the Vedas, the eternity of the varnas, the intrinsic nature of the validity of the Vedas, the criticism of the Mimamsa view-that the purport of the scriptural enunciations is action and that the scriptures do not expound anything that is not connected with action, to wit, they do not dwell upon an existent entity-potency as a separate category, the deliberation on the scriptural statement 'neha nanasti kincana', the identical nature of Existence, Consciousness and Bliss, Bliss as the nature of Brahman, the positive nature of Bliss, self-luminosity of the soul, the nature of Maya, Brahman in association with Maya as the material and efficient cause of the creation, the impartial (akhanda) nature of the meaning of the identity propositions (the mahavakyas), etc. The importance of the present work is evident from the fact that none other than Citsukhacarya followed its style and method of presentation of philosophical issues, albeit with more precision and lucidity, and quoted and criticised its views on the intrinsic nature of validity, the import of Vedic injunctions, the process of verbal cognition, etc. Their exposition is mainly based on the syllogistic propositions and fallacies of reason.