This short treatise explains in detail the principle of Radical Pluralism which asserts that the elements alone are realities while every combination of them is a mere name covering a plurality of separate elements. The principle has been elucidated by its contrast with Arambhavada which maintains the reality of the whole as well as of the elements and with Parinama-vada which ascribes absolute reality to the whole. The work is divided into sixteen sections dealing with Skandhas, Ayatanas, Dhatus, Elements of mind, Pratityasamutpada, Karma, Impermanence in Sankhya-Yoga, Theory of Cognition, Pre-Buddhaic Buddhism etc. It has two appendices dealing with the views of Vasubandhu on the fundamental principles of Sarvastivada and the classification of all elements of existence according to the Sarvastivadins. The two indices appended to the work record proper names and Sanskrit terms occurring in the work.