Aim of this book is to explore anew the concept of the person from two contrasting-the Oriental and the Occidental-perspectives. At the center of this investigation, firstly, are the philosophical insights contained in the rational surveys, and corresponding notions, in the Upanisads. The perspective we find in the classical texts of India clearly states the supremacy of the human being in the phenomenal world, always dependent on Ultimate Reality. Secondly, an attempt is made to fully delineate the cardinal characteristics of Edith Stein's philosophy of the person, which proposes an anthropological and true-to-life solution guided by her phenomenologically sound and metaphysically oriented philosophy on the foundation, meaning, and manifestations of the human person. The undertaking of comparing, contrasting, and establishing a dialogue between the Upanisadic and the Steininan views presupposes a deconstruction, re-founding and enhancement of the different, cultural heritages and suggests that a better understanding of the human person is not only possible, but also needed and most desirable. The central aim of this research, therefore, is to promote an in-depth discussion about the nature of the person, a research which at the same time is interconnected within a trans-cultural perspective and, thus, able to promote a new form of dialogue among cultures, one that we venture to characterize as inter-philosophical.